Saturday, April 21, 2012

Passive voice


Passive Voice
Áóñäààð ¿éëäýãäýõ õýâ / Èäýâõèã¿é õýâ/

(to be + Past Participle )
Changing from Active into Passive        
Active

subject
verb
object
Kim
baked
a cake.
Passive
subject
verb
agent
A cake
was baked
by Kim.
 

Active voice   
Èäýâõòýé õýâ/ Ýçýí áèåòýé /
Passive voice  
Èäýâõèã¿é õýâ /Ýçýí áèåã¿é / 
Present Simple
She cleans the house.
The house is cleaned.
Past Simple
She cleaned the house.
The house was cleaned.
Present Perfect Simple
She has cleaned the house.
The house has been cleaned.
Future Simple
She will clean the house.
The house will be cleaned.
Modal verb
She must clean the house.
The house must be cleaned.

Use:
We use the passive when we want to show that the action of the verb is more important than the person who carries out the action. ( Passive – èäýâõèã¿é õýëáýðèéã ¿éëèéí ýçýí  áèø õàðèí ¿éëèéã ÷óõàë ãýæ ¿çñýí ¿åä õýðýãëýíý).

Active voice  
Èäýâõòýé õýâ/ Ýçýí áèåòýé /
Passive voice  
Èäýâõã¿é õýâ / Ýçýí áèåã¿é / 
Present Simple
The policeman arrests the robber.
Öàãäàà õóëãàé÷ õ¿íèéã  áàðèâ÷èëäàã.
The robber is arrested by the policeman.
Õóëãàé÷ áàðèâ÷ëàãääàã.
Past Simple
The policeman arrested the robber.
Öàãäàà õóëãàé÷ûã áàðèâ÷èëñàí.
The robber was arrested by the policeman.
Õóëãàé÷ áàðèâëàãäñàí.
Present Perfect Simple
The policeman has arrested the robber.
Öàãäàà õóëãàé÷ûã áàðèâ÷èë÷èõñàí.
The robber has been arrested by the
policeman.
Õóëãàé÷ áàðèâ÷ëàãä÷èõààä áàéíà.
Future Simple
The policeman will arrest the robber.
Öàãäàà õóëãàé÷ûã áàðèâ÷èëíà.
The robber will be arrested by the policeman. Õóëãàé÷ áàðèâ÷ëàãäàíà.
Modal verb
The policeman must arrest the robber.
Öàãäàà õóëãàé÷ûã áàðèâ÷ëàõ ¸ñòîé.
The robber must be arrested by the policeman. Õóëãàé÷ áàðèâ÷ëàãäàõ ¸ñòîé.

Question form    
We form questions by putting the verb to be before the subject.
For example: Was the car made in Japan?      - Ìàøèí ßïîíä ¿éëäâýðëýãäñýí ¿¿?
      When was the museum built? – Ìóçåé õýäýí îíä áàðèãäñàí áý?
When will the new gallery be opened? – Øèíý óðàí çóðãèéí ãàëåðåé õýçýý íýýãäýõ âý?
What was the Eiffel Tower made of? – Ýéôëèéí öàìõàã þóãààð õèéãäñýí áý?
It was made of iron. – Ãàí òºìðººð õèéãäñýí.
  

Passive Voice
Áóñäààð ¿éëäýãäýõ õýâ / Èäýâõèã¿é õýâ/
Practice
Complete each sentence using the word in bold, as in the example.
  1. Steven Spielberg directed the film “ET”. by
“ET” was directed by Steven Spielberg.
  1. The Russians launched Sputnik 1 in 1957. was
……………………………………………………………..
  1. Millions of tourists visit London every year. visited
……………………………………………………………..
  1. They must repair the chapel immediately. repaired
……………………………………………………………..
  1. The Queen will open the new gallery on Friday. be
……………………………………………………………..
  1. They have redecorated the museum.  been
……………………………………………………………..
  1. Fleming didn’t invent the TV.  Invented
……………………………………………………………..

Put the verbs into the correct passive tense.
The Louvre is the national museum and art gallery of France. In 1546, work on the Louvre …………….. ( start) by King Francis I. The Louvre ………………. ( use) as a royal palace until 1682. It ……………. (open) to the public as a museum and art gallery in 1793.
Today many of the world’s most famous paintings ……………..( keep) in the Louvre, as well as sculptures, jewellery and other forms of art. It ………………. (visit) by millions of people every year.
Ask and answer the questions using the prompts.
  1. when/ work/ the Louvre/ start?
A: When was work on the Louvre started?
B: Work on the Louvre was started in 1546.
  1. what/ it/ use as/ until 1682?
  2. When/ the Louvre/ open/ to the public?
  3. What/ keep/ in the Louvre?
  4. How many people/ it/ visit every year?
In pairs, ask and answer questions, then talk about each place, as in the example.
Name; Eiffel Tower, Paris, France
Name; Parthenon, Athens, Greece
Designer: Gustave Eiffel
Designer: Ictinus and Callicrates
Completed: 1889
Completed: 432 BC
Material: iron
Material: marble
Built as: memorial to the French Revolution
Built as: temple of goddess Athena
A: Where is the Eiffel Tower located?
B: It is located in Paris, France. Who was it designed by?
A: It was designed by Gustave Eiffel. When was it completed?
B: It was completed in 1889. What is it made of?
A: It is made of iron. Why was it built?
B: It was built as a memorial to the French Revolution. 


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